As globalization continues to advance, cold chain logistics has become a high-profile area. Cold chain logistics refers to the precise control and monitoring of temperature-sensitive products during transportation, storage and distribution to ensure product quality and safety. This industry chain covers the whole process from transportation, storage, loading and unloading handling, to information management systems and big data services,cold chain and each link requires strict control and management. In this industry chain, the synergy of each link is crucial. Only through efficient collaboration and precise management can we ensure the efficient operation of cold chain logistics and the quality and safety of products.
Cold chain transportation refers to the transportation of products from the place of origin to the place of sale by controlling the temperature and keeping it stable during the whole logistics process. The main feature of cold chain logistics lies in its temperature control technology and equipment,cold warehouse which is the key factor determining whether the products can reach the requirements, and also the direction of development and innovation of cold chain logistics industry.
Cold chain transportation has a wide range of applications, mainly in the fields of frozen food, fresh fruits and vegetables, pharmaceuticals, chemical products and so on. In these fields, the quality and safety of products are crucial, and temperature control is the key factor to ensure product quality and safety. Therefore, cold chain transportation has a very important role in these fields.
In cold chain transportation, refrigerated trucks are one of the most commonly used means of transportation. Reefer trucks can choose different transportation modes according to different purposes, such as low-temperature trucks and medium-temperature trucks. At the same time, when designing refrigerated trucks, it is necessary to consider the temperature control requirements during the actual use to ensure that the products can meet the requirements.
Cold storage is a kind of building specialized in preserving food at low temperature, which can be divided into two types: fixed type and movable type. Fixed cold storage is usually constructed on the ground, which is suitable for large-scale food circulation; movable cold storage can be moved and adjusted according to the needs, which is suitable for small-scale food circulation. The design and construction of cold stores need to take into account the preservation requirements of different foodstuffs and temperature control techniques to ensure the quality and safety of foodstuffs.
Refrigerated truck is a kind of vehicle specially used for transportation of low-temperature goods, usually with compartment structure. According to the different models and functions, refrigerated trucks can be divided into various types, such as compartment refrigerated trucks, compartment insulated trucks, special refrigerated trucks and so on. The design and manufacture of refrigerated trucks need to take into account the preservation requirements and temperature control technology of different goods to ensure that the goods maintain a stable low-temperature state during transportation. Refrigerated trucks play an important role in cold chain logistics, which can ensure the quality and safety of food, medicine and other low-temperature goods in the transportation process.
Loading and unloading handling refers to the handling that occurs in the process of loading and unloading of goods. According to the different ways of handling, loading and unloading can be divided into general loading and unloading, yard loading and unloading, forklift loading and unloading and container truck loading and unloading.
Among them, general loading and unloading refers to the process in which goods are directly transformed from one state to another; yard loading and unloading refers to the loading and unloading operation of goods in the yard; forklift loading and unloading refers to the process in which goods are handled by forklift from one location to another; and container truck loading and unloading refers to the process between the vehicle from the point of unloading to the point of loading. In cold chain logistics, loading and unloading is closely related to warehousing and is often carried out in warehouses. Cold chain logistics enterprises usually fulfill the warehousing function, so the loading and unloading handling link is generally not set up separately.
Loading and unloading handling is an indispensable link in cold chain logistics, which needs to adopt different loading and unloading handling methods according to different cargoes and transportation modes, so as to ensure the safety and quality of the cargoes in the transportation process.
4. Circulation processing
Circulation processing refers to the process of processing fresh goods through certain treatment, so that they will not be affected by air, water, microorganisms and temperature, prolonging the shelf life of the products and having certain nutritional value and health care value. Circulation and processing is an important part of cold chain logistics. The circulation rate of fresh agricultural products in China is only about 20%, which is far lower than the level of over 80% in developed countries, and the processing rate of fresh agricultural products is only about 25%. With the improvement of people's living standard, the quality, quantity and quality requirements of fresh agricultural products are getting higher and higher.
Circulation processing mainly includes all kinds of processing and packaging in the cold chain logistics process of meat food, aquatic products and other foods. Cold chain logistics mainly relies on refrigerated and frozen transportation technology to realize the purpose of freshness preservation, quick-freezing and pre-cooling. Refrigeration and freezing technology is the key to ensure product quality, reduce product loss and extend shelf life. With the continuous development of China's economy and the improvement of people's living standards, the demand for cold chain logistics is increasing year by year. In order to realize the purpose of preservation of freshness, quick-freezing and pre-cooling, more and more enterprises are investing in the cold chain logistics industry.
Packaging is an important part of cold chain logistics, and its purpose is to protect food. Due to the special characteristics of refrigerated food, different forms of packaging are needed, including refrigerated transportation packaging and refrigerated storage packaging.
The development of cold chain logistics in China is still in the primary stage, and there is still a certain gap compared with the developed countries, especially there is a big gap between refrigerated transportation packaging and foreign countries, which is mainly reflected in the following aspects:
Firstly, there is a big gap between refrigerated drugs, food packaging containers, facilities and equipments, transportation vehicles and routes, etc. compared with foreign countries; secondly, there is a high requirement on the safety of packaging materials; thirdly, most of the cold chain logistics enterprises lack professional packaging management experience and technology, and the quality of packaging materials is poor; fourthly, cold chain logistics enterprises lack unified management and cold chain logistics information system construction. In addition, due to the late start of cold chain logistics in China, there are still many problems in management, such as unsound cold chain logistics facilities and equipments, non-uniformity, different standards and other problems. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the construction of management and standards, improve the quality level of cold chain logistics facilities and equipment and standards, and promote the development of China's cold chain logistics industry.
Refrigerated and frozen sale mainly refers to the sale of refrigerated and frozen food during transportation and storage. It includes both wholesale and retail.
Wholesale link is the process of transporting products directly from production enterprises to wholesalers and retailers at all levels, mainly utilizing commercial outlets and other channels to bring products to the market, and usually adopting the mode of "mainline transportation + end distribution". Wholesale link is mainly undertaken by refrigerated and frozen food manufacturers, wholesalers or retailers, the products do not go through the terminal sales channels, so the distributors may be more for the primary market wholesale.
The retail link refers to the delivery of refrigerated and frozen food directly to consumers through retail outlets, and at present, cold chain logistics is mainly based on this model. The retail segment is generally responsible for distribution, warehousing, processing and other logistics operations by retailers, mainly adopting the mode of "self-pick-up" or "delivery and distribution".
7. Information management system and big data service
Cold chain logistics information management system can realize real-time monitoring and statistical analysis of information on each link of cold chain transportation, distribution and storage, and provide accurate reports on cold chain logistics transportation, storage and other related data, so as to better plan cold chain logistics strategy and improve cold chain logistics service quality.
In addition, big data technology and services will help enterprises better analyze and utilize these data resources to provide users with more accurate data services. For example, by collecting and collating temperature measurement and monitoring data from various nodes, suggestions such as analysis and optimization of transport routes can be provided.