Fresh cold chain logistics generally refers to frozen fresh food, such as meat, poultry, aquatic products, vegetables, fruits, eggs, etc., collected from the place of origin (or slaughtering, harvesting place), the products in processing, storage, transportation, distribution, retailing, etc., are always in a suitable low-temperature control environment, a special supply chain system, maximize product quality and safety, reduce waste and prevent pollution.
Due to China's fresh enterprise products from the factory to transportation and then to the hands of Chinese consumers need us to experience a long time, and for most of the fresh food timeliness is short, so they in order to further strengthen the fresh food preservation, people more than freezing process and refrigeration system technology can be applied in the fresh electronic products in the logistics management process, so as to be able to ensure that perishable and easy to damage fresh products in the consumption of fresh products before the Various important links are in a low-temperature environment, to ensure the quality of its product information, fresh cold chain logistics and financial industry also came into being.
According to statistics, China's fresh food cold chain logistics industry is a production- and consumption-oriented cold chain logistics, which mainly consists of four links: frozen processing, frozen storage, refrigerated transportation and distribution, and frozen sales.
Among them, the freezing process mainly involves cooling, freezing, quick-freezing device and sorting treatment; freezing storage includes cooling, freezing storage and air-conditioning storage of agricultural products; and refrigerated transportation and distribution includes medium and long-distance transportation of agricultural products, short-distance distribution and other logistics links. Changes in temperature can easily cause the quality of fresh and live agricultural products to deteriorate in the circulation stage, so the temperature of refrigerated transportation means in this link should be kept at the characteristic temperature required by fresh and live agricultural products. The last link is frozen sales, including the frozen storage and sales of all kinds of cold chain agricultural products that enter the wholesale and retail links.
1. Development history
From a worldwide perspective, the cold chain originated earlier in Europe, America, Japan and other countries and regions. As early as in the first half of the 19th century, with the invention of refrigerator, cold chain began to take shape gradually. The cold chain system for fresh food in Europe and America was initially established as early as the 1930s. At present, the development history of fresh cold chain logistics industry in Europe, America, Japan and other developed countries has been more than 150 years, and the industry is very mature.
Due to the high threshold of fresh and live cold chain logistics industry, high operation cost and long recovery cycle, compared with the fresh and live cold chain logistics industry in foreign countries in China, the domestic fresh and live cold chain logistics industry only began to develop in the 1960s, and the fresh and live cold chain logistics industry is the beginning of the end of the last century.
From 1998 to 2007, China's fresh cold chain logistics industry entered the first stage. At this stage, the development of the industry was in the primary stage. As the domestic large-scale and systematic cold chain logistics system has not yet been formed, the proportion of fresh and live agricultural products circulated through cold chain is very low, and the capacity of cold chain logistics infrastructure is seriously insufficient. Many enterprises do not have the concept of "cold chain logistics", and they rely on their own judgment to enter the cold chain market. Most enterprises only rely on a few second-hand modified refrigerated trucks to run and start transportation, while most of the outdated cold storage facilities should be in the hands of state-owned enterprises and urban distribution in the hands of dealers. Due to the low supply of reefer trucks and the shortage of resources in the market, cold chain enterprises are quite lucrative.
From 2008 to 2017, the development of the domestic fresh cold chain delivery industry has entered the second stage as China's cold chain logistics enters the 2.0 era.In 2010, the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) formulated the cold chain plan for the first time, and other factors gradually made the concept of the cold chain begin to spread, stirring up a pool of spring water in the market.During the decade of 2008-2017, people's concern for food safety and freshness has been increasing, and the fresh and frozen food industry developed rapidly.
At the same time, China's agricultural products storage and preservation technology also developed rapidly, and the environment and conditions for the development of fresh and live agricultural products cold chain logistics continued to improve, which promoted the rapid development of the domestic fresh and cold chain logistics industry: the industry began to be organized, large-scale operation, information technology level, and the layout of the market-oriented national warehousing and distribution network.
So far in 2018, China's fresh cold chain logistics market has further metamorphosed. Explosive growth in cold chain demand for fresh products for all, increasingly perfect infrastructure system, and new technologies have a strong impetus to the industry. With the arrival of the cold chain logistics 3.0 era, the industry will begin to usher in a new butterfly change mode.
2、Status of the market
Although China is a large country in the production, consumption and trade of agricultural products, the distribution of fresh and live agricultural products in China is extremely unbalanced: for example, Inner Mongolia is rich in beef and mutton, and the fishery industry is concentrated in the coastal areas... Therefore, with the accelerated pace of urbanization in China, the production and management of agricultural products to upgrade the way, agricultural production and modern circulation and urban markets are increasingly close. In the transportation process of fresh products such as fruits and vegetables, dairy products, poultry, aquatic products and so on, the role of cold chain logistics is becoming more and more prominent, and its biggest role is to realize the flattened flow of fresh products in the whole country, or even globally.
In addition, with the steady improvement of the national income level, people's pursuit of a higher standard of living, health consciousness is gradually increasing, people pay more attention to the freshness of food, and the demand for fresh products is also increasing, the cold chain supply of fresh agricultural products, such as direct supply at the origin, and the agricultural super docking mode has appeared, which directly promotes the growth of the demand for fresh products in cold chain logistics.
From 2014 to 2021, the economic scale of China's corporate fresh food e-commerce market then grew from 109.7 billion yuan to 686.1 billion yuan. However, we are for online shopping, fresh food e-commerce, fruits and vegetables home distribution, etc., the transportation management link has a very important, so can benefit from the growth of the scale of demand for fresh food e-commerce market, the domestic fresh food cold chain logistics services market environment to achieve rapid and healthy development.
With professional service ability, can provide the whole refrigerated truck temperature control process of sales and inventory are increasing year by year. In general, China's fresh cold chain logistics industry, although a late start, but is currently in a high-speed development stage.
In recent years, with the development of China's social and economic development, the progress of the times, the improvement of the quality level of the residents' daily life, the growth of the demand for fresh food, the development of cold chain logistics information technology, etc., China's fresh cold chain logistics service industry has also been followed by a rapid and healthy development.
Data show that China's fresh food cold chain logistics market size grew from about 30 billion yuan in 2014 to 203.5 billion yuan in 2020, with a compound annual growth rate of about 37%. 2021, China's food cold chain logistics demand was 302 million tons, 37,270 tons more than in 2020. According to preliminary statistics, the demand for fresh food cold chain logistics accounts for nearly 90%, so it is expected that the market size of China's fresh food cold chain logistics industry will continue to grow in 2023.
In recent years, driven by the strong demand in China's fresh food cold chain logistics market and the continuous improvement of cold chain logistics facilities, the fresh food cold chain logistics industry has developed rapidly. However, from the global point of view, the cold chain transportation rate of fresh food in China and its circulation corruption rate (referring to the proportion of breakage and corruption during transportation to the total amount of transportation) are still inferior to that of developed countries, and the gap is large.
Relatively perfect our country and developed areas of national development of fresh enterprise products cold chain transportation rate, China's fruits and vegetables, meat and aquatic products cold chain transportation rate of 35%, 57% and 69%, respectively, compared to the situation under the economically developed our country fruits and vegetables, meat and aquatic products industry, the average rate of cold chain transportation can be as high as 90%, 80% and 95%, respectively.
At the same time, due to the domestic fresh food average cold chain transportation rate is not high, so our fresh food supply loss rate is also very high, the average fresh food decay rate is significantly higher than the developed countries of the average fresh food decay rate. Among them, the decay rate of fruits and vegetables in China is about three times that of developed countries, and the decay rate of aquatic products is about twice that of developed countries. Therefore, China's fresh cold chain logistics industry still has a large space for development!
As far as the domestic fresh food market is concerned, with the continuous improvement of consumer demand, fresh food e-commerce has also ushered in a big development in recent years, which also promotes the rapid growth of the demand for domestic fresh food cold chain logistics!